一、 Data center overview
With the development of computer technology and microelectronics technology, the requirements of communication equipment system integration are higher and higher. The high system integration makes the equipment contained in many machine rooms in the past be concentrated into a cabinet. In this way, the constant temperature and humidity of ventilation and machine room environment in the machine is essential, and the adoption of ventilation and air conditioning equipment in the machine can reduce the temperature and avoid the occurrence of excessive temperature The function of fire is to dilute the fire smoke. In this way, the thermal buoyancy of the smoke generated by the initial fire becomes smaller and it is difficult to reach the ceiling. This greatly delays the response alarm time of the ordinary passive point type smoke detector, and even makes it useless because the smoke is seriously diluted or difficult to spread to the detector.
Communication room is the heart of information network. Because of the high price of communication equipment, once a fire occurs, it will not only cause serious economic losses, but also cause equipment paralysis, which will make the communication and data loss of the government, companies, banks, businesses, factories and individuals interrupted. The loss can not be estimated, and more importantly, the social benefits are irreparable.
二、 Data center fire characteristics
1. In order to increase the fire resistance of the plastic insulation layer of wires and cables of the equipment room, additives such as halides and phosphates are added. These additives slow down the spread of the fire, but produce excessive smoke. The randomness of the smoke conduction may cause the misoperation of the circuit, and the smoke on the components may also cause the wear of the moving parts. When soot deposits on storage media such as disks and tapes, it may generate error messages. Diameter > 0.5 microns (equivalent to a hair thick dust particle can damage the hard disk drive. In addition, in addition to heat and smoke, corrosive gas and toxic gas are also released during the fire. Phenolic gas is produced during the combustion of most plastics, and a large amount of hydrogen chloride gas is released during the combustion of PVC insulation. It combines with water molecules to form hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid is a strong corrosive agent that corrodes the terminals of electronic components and circuit boards, which will endanger the normal operation of the equipment 。 Early warning will avoid this loss before smoke is formed. In order to improve the alarm, it needs high detection sensitivity, and it also needs to be able to alarm when the smoke is relatively weak. But ordinary point type smoke detector must passively wait for the smoke to gather enough concentration to alarm, which limits its use in this environment.
2. All fire extinguishing systems shall be started by smoke detectors. The earlier the fire is started, the smaller the loss. It is very necessary for the machine room to use early smoke alarm system to improve the detection of fire, put out the fire in the bud, and avoid the formation of thick smoke and unnecessary fire extinguishing agent spraying. Since the communication equipment runs all year round, it can not be stopped, and the requirements of smoke control tester should make the maintenance and repair volume smaller, and avoid climbing to the ceiling for maintenance. Once there are metal objects falling into the cabinet, the consequences will be unimaginable. In addition, there are various equipment in the machine room, such as switches, transmitters, high-voltage power supply, computers, etc. the detector shall not be subject to electromagnetic interference, otherwise it is easy to cause false alarm or false spraying.
3. The potential fire hazard of communication room is mainly caused by the over-voltage or over-current of cables and wires. The practice shows that the wires and cables are burnt out and can not be used again when the ordinary smoke detector gives an alarm. In this way, even if the ordinary smoke detection system reports an alarm, it will not help. It is necessary to give an early alarm. It is required that the cables and wires just overheat, emit a burnt smell but have not yet generated visible smoke, and give an alarm when the wires and cables have not been deformed, so the early alarm can avoid the damage of the equipment and cables. In addition, the data storage and personnel evacuation of the computer room also need enough time to deal with, so early alarm becomes an essential requirement for fire prevention of the computer room environment.
The fire prevention difficulties of data center are as follows:
1. Strong airflow: the fast ventilation system is easy to dilute the density of smoke particles, increasing the difficulty of detection
2. Electromagnetic interference: the strong electromagnetic interference produced by a large number of communication equipment will affect the stability of the internal chip of the detector, resulting in false alarm.
3. It is difficult to maintain; the equipment in the machine room must run continuously without interruption, and the maintenance of the fire detector must be fast, simple and effective.
4. Once a fire is formed, even if it can be put out, it will inevitably cause damage to the equipment, so it needs high sensitivity of the fire detector to detect the fire hazards in time and take actions to reduce the degree of damage;
三、Data center solutions
Schematic diagram of ASD series use area of very early fire prediction system designed for machine room
Inspiratory smoke fire detection alarm (hereinafter referred to as alarm) is a smoke sampling detection device based on professional laser optical air monitoring technology and microprocessor control technology. The equipment uses mature and professional laser optical technology and a variety of sensor processing technology, and integrates professional digital micro processing technology, which has many characteristics that other smoke detection technologies do not have. These characteristics improve the equipment performance, simplify the operation, and increase the reliability and stability of the system.
It is designed for the detection and alarm in the early stage of fire (overheating, smoldering, or low thermal radiation and aerosol generation stage). The alarm time is several hours ahead of the traditional fire detection, so as to reduce the fire loss as much as possible. It can not only be used as an independent detection system, but also connected to the control system provided by different fire equipment manufacturers. The design optimizes its performance while ensuring the installation and debugging as simple as possible.
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